Work Package 2
Land use and nutrient balancing

Responsible
Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) in the Research Association Berlin e.V., Dr. Horst Behrendt (Leader of working package 2), PD Dr. Jürgen Hofmann (private lecturer)

Co-operation partners in Mongolia:
  • Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Prof. S. Baranchuluun (Head of the Pasture and Crop Irrigation Division)
  • Darkhan Uul Aimag, State Professional Inspection Agency, Ms. Davaadulam (Head of Education and Health Inspection Department), Ms. Boloorma (Vice Director)
  • Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Darkhan, Mrs. Prof. Tsevel, Ms. Purevsuren Sukhbataar (Teacher for Chemistry), Ms. Gerel
  • Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar: Prof. Munkhbaatar, Dr. Budsuren, Dr. D. Enkhbat

Objectives
The main target of this work package consists in the analysis of the hydraulic load with nutrients and heavy metals by diffuse and point sources in the sub-basins of the River Kharaa. Therefore the natural water supply, water formation conditions and their interaction with emissions will be analysed by time and area. The main task consists in the development of a model system which allows the analysis of the present state and a calculation of scenarios for possible future emission changes. This will allow to link the model system with the ecological status, climatic and socio-economic scenarios as well.
An indispensable precondition for further steps is the analysis of actual land use patterns and the set up of a consistent regionally adapted land use classification based on remote sensing data. The basis for this approach is given by the model system MONERIS (Modelling Nutrient Emissions in River Systems). Originally MONERIS was used in catchments with permanent runoff in the temperate zone of Central Europe. Meanwhile it has also been applied in the Continental Boreal Zone (Athabasca River North Canada).



The further development of the model system MONERIS should lead to mesoscale modelling of diffuse and point emissions of catchments with large runoff fluctuations in extreme continental climates (periodical flow regime in change with phases of ice cover and therefore ice blocked river systems). This also affects nutrient transport and retention in the water bodies. The analysis of waterflows and nutrient emissions differentiated by area and time should lead to the identification of diffuse sources. The investigation will be focussed on nutrients and their impact to eutrophication. Also mining activities and their emissions of heavy metals (e.g. Mercury) will have an impact to water quality. Data for soil losses and erosion will be provided by the Mongolian project partner. Data of point sources will be collected in agreement with WP 3 and WP 6. The description of the water balance will be done by WP 1 (AG Prof. Alcamo) and forms the hydrological data base for the characterization of the current material inputs and the climate scenarios. By quantification of emissions from diverse pathways different land use- and cultivation scenarios and their consequences to the character changes and the sustainable cultivation of the catchment can be calculated. This teamwork will be performed within the frame of WP 8 (synthesis and integration of the working packages).
Essential steps

March 2007
  • Sampling and water analysis of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorus) and heavy metals (especially Mercury) of river systems during the ice cover in winter time
  • On-site-analysis of nutrients using a spectral photometer (Photometer DR 2800 of Dr. Lange Inc.) and a special cuvette test system
  • Instruction of Mongolian project collaborators in sampling procedures
  • Capacity Building: Lecture of PD Dr. J. Hofmann: "The model system MONERIS and its application for the analysis of nutrient balances in the Kharaa River Basin at the Agricultural university of Darkhan


August/September 2007
  • Sampling and water analysis of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) as well as heavy metals along the entire river course with special attention to the tributaries in the Khentii mountains, ground truth analysis of mining activities in the upper reaches of the Kharaa river
  • Sampling of groundwater and soil analysis in Khongor Sum (Suspicion of contamination by illegal placer mining plant) for heavy metals and particularly Mercury together with staff members of the State Professional Inspection Agency Darkhan
  • Introduction of Mongolian project collaborators to water analytics


October 2007
  • MoMo-status quo meeting with German project collaborators in
  • Start of the continuous monthly sampling and water analysis of nitrogen and phosphorous at three sampling points in Darkhan Uul Aimag by Ms. Gerel
  • analytics of water and soil samples of Khongor Sum for heavy metals and cyanide


November/December 2007
  • Continuation of monthly samplings and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan)
  • The four sampling points are situated upstream of Darkhan city (Deed Guur) and downstream of Darkhan (Buren Tolgoi) as well as directly at the outlet of Darkhan waste water treatment plant. The exact location is shown in the following figure (Google Earth figure with photos of the sampling locations)
  • The data at the runoff gauge will also be used for the quantification of nutrient loads


January 2008
  • Completion of the preliminary Khongor report (draft version) on sampling of groundwater and soil in Khongor for the analysis of cyanide and heavy metals (hazardous incident by discharge of contaminants of an illegal processing facility for the chemical treatment of sediments containing goldparticles)
  • Discussion and finalization of the report within the community of German collaborators (Deadline January 31, 2008)
  • Subsequent translation of the finalized Khongor report into Mongolian language and allocation for the Mongolian collaborators


February 2008
  • Participation at the project meeting of the German Momo-Partners in (7./8.2.2009)
  • Completion of the final version of the report on investigations of groundwater and soil in Khongor Sum with focus on possible contaminations by cyanide and heavy metals (Khongor report)
  • Distribution of the Khongor report to the Mongolian ministries (National Water Agency in, State Professional Inspection Agency in Darkhan) and MoMo-cooperation partners, information of the German project execution organization and the German embassy in Ulaanbaatar


March 2008
  • Completion of the interim report (working package 2) for the German project execution organization
  • March 31 to April 12, 2008 field work (sampling of Kharaa river water) and capacity building in Darkhan


April 2008
  • Field survey and sampling in the KharaaRiver basin (31.3. to 12.4.2008)
  • Sampling (24.04.2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Delivery and discussion of the Khongor report (investigations of groundwater and soil in Khongor Sum on cyanide and heavy metals) with the State Professional Agency in Darkhan ; the Khongor report can be downloaded from the MoMo Homepage (see under: Publications)


May 2008
  • Sampling (08 May 2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Participation at the Status-Conference in Ulaanbaatar (20-22 May, 2008), presentation of first project results: Analysis of Landuse patterns and actual situation of nutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the Kharaa river


June 2008
  • Sampling (09 June 2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Completion of the Quality Assurance Guidance Manual for AP2 and distribution to the project partners via Intranet


July 2008
  • Sampling (09 July 2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Completion of the Digitalization of the river network in the Kharaa river basin
  • Registration of the poster contribution (“Modelling of nutrient and heavy metal fluxes in the Khaara River Basin – the application of MONERIS for Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia (Model Region Mongolia / MoMo) from AP 2 for the “11th International Specialised Conference on Watershed & River Basin Management to be held in Budapest on 4-5 September 2008“


September 2008
  • Presentation on the IWA conference in Budapest (11th International Specialised Conference on Watershed & River Basin Management to be held in Budapest on 4-5 September 2008) Topuc: “Modelling of nutrient and heavy metal fluxes in the Khaara River Basin – the application of MONERIS for Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia“
  • Lecture of Dr. Hofmann on 4.9.2008 at the TU Darkhan on actual results of nutrient and heavy metal emissions in the Kharaa river basin
  • First audience of Dr. Scharaw and Dr. Hofmann at the new governor of Darkhan Uul Aimag, Mr. Erdenebat on 5.9.2008
  • Field survey (5.9.-8.9.2008) of Dr. Hofmann (WP2) and Dr. Scharaw (WP4) on the issue: „Situation of the drinking water supply and waste water management in rural areas and investigations of heavy metals in “hot spot��? areas“, Conduction of interviews
  • Delivery of project results and overview of the actual data base (posters and laboratory reports) to representatives of the Water Agency UB, the State Professional Agency Darkhan and the ministry of agriculture (10.09.2008)


October 2008
  • Sampling (01.10.2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Analysis of the water samples on heavy metals and nutrients in Berlin


November 2008
  • MoMo-Status meeting (3./4.11.2008) of the german project team in Kassel
  • Sampling (01.11.2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Performance of the runoff calibration for the model system MONERIS


December 2008
  • Sampling (01.12.2008) and water analysis (nutrients) by Ms. Gerel (MoMo project office Darkhan) in the framework of the monthly monitoring programme
  • Summary and completion of the monitoring results (August 2007 to December Dezember 2008
  • Completion and distribution of the report : „Situation of the drinking water supply and waste water management in rural areas and investigations of heavy metals in “hot spot“ areas“ written by Dr. Hofmann and Dr. Scharaw